Things to Attention to When Taking Blood Thinner Medications

June 9, 2010 0 Comments

Blood ThinnerAre blood thinner in any of the medicines you take every day? If you have a history of heart disease or are at risk for developing the disease, then blood-thinning medications are most likely on your medication list. This drug is useful for preventing blood clots that can cause heart attacks, strokes, and heart failure. This medicine does make your blood thinner, so there are a few things to be aware of when using this medicine.

Things to consider when using blood thinners

There are various types of blood thinners, for example, the most commonly used are warfarin or heparin. Usually, the use of this drug is applied to people with high blood pressure. Unfortunately, many patients do not know what rules and regulations should be followed when using this blood-thinning drug. These things are quite important to know because they can affect the work of drugs and the health of the body.

The following are suggestions that you should do when taking blood-thinning drugs.

  • Do not take the drug in excessive doses. If you miss taking your medicine, then you should wait until the next schedule for taking the medicine. Taking multiple doses at once can cause health problems.
  • Avoid activities that put you at risk of getting hurt and bleeding. The reason is, even though the wound is quite small, bleeding can still occur due to using this drug. For example, when you are going to ride a bicycle, you should wear safety protective equipment to reduce injury.
  • If you fall or hit something hard enough, you should immediately consult a doctor. Although there is no blood coming out, the appearance of bruising is a sign that there is bleeding in the body. Bleeding can be fatal when a person is taking blood-thinning medications.
  • Replace your shaver with an electric one. This is to avoid cuts caused by ordinary razor blades.
  • Use gloves when you use sharp objects, such as scissors, knives, and crop-cutting tools.
  • Always wear footwear outside the house. When on the ground there is something sharp then it can hurt your foot.
  • Use a toothbrush with soft bristles so your gums don’t bleed easily.
  • Do not take other vitamin supplements before consulting your doctor. Some vitamin supplements have interactions with this drug that will hurt your health.
  • Also avoid the use of certain types of painkillers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These drugs can make your blood thinner and cause bleeding. If you experience pain and want to take painkillers, you should first consult with your doctor about which types of drugs are safe for you to take.

Food can also be an obstacle to the work of blood-thinning drugs

Some types of food can inhibit and affect the work of blood-thinning drugs. Usually, this happens in foods that contain lots of vitamin K. In the body, vitamin K plays an important role in the blood clotting process. This then makes you should avoid foods with high vitamin K such as:

  • Asparagus
  • Broccoli
  • Cabbage
  • Onion
  • Spinach
  • Soybeans

Meanwhile, other types of vegetables are safe for consumption and can replace vegetables that are rich in vitamin K.

The Strangest and Rare Diseases in the World You Must Know

May 2, 2010 0 Comments

Diseases Strange diseases? may sound familiar as elephantiasis or Zika. However, some on this list are so rare that you may not have even heard of them before. The majority of these diseases have no treatment options and still confuse doctors around the world

Persistent sexual arousal syndrome: aroused without stopping

Passion and seconds to climax are usually what you will only feel during sex or masturbation. However, some people can almost at any time be on the verge of orgasm during their daily activities. For example, when crossing the street or even waiting for a public bus. Whereas. they do not experience or receive any sexual stimulation.

The condition of being aroused continuously without stopping is called Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome (PSAS). PSAS can attack anyone regardless of age, gender, or sexual orientation. However, the cause is not yet known.

Some scientists believe that nerve hypersensitivity in the genital organs could be one of the causes. Others suspect that the narrowing of the veins in the pelvis to hormonal disturbances is the cause.

Exploding head syndrome: “bomb explosion” in the head

A loud noise wakes you up at night or startles you up as soon as you fall asleep? Even after the lyrics left and right, there wasn’t a single thing that caused the noise. That loud voice comes from inside your head.

Exploding Head Syndrome sounds like a scenario from a horror movie, but it’s a serious medical condition that affects thousands of people around the world. Symptoms of this disease are disturbed sleep with bright flashes of light, shortness of breath, and increased heart rate, accompanied by sounds that sound like a bomb exploding, gunshots, cymbal banging, or other versions of loud noises in a person’s head while trying to sleep. There are no symptoms of pain, swelling, or other physical problems.

When the head “explodes”, the situation is usually described as a brain shutdown process, similar to a computer shutting down. When the brain goes to sleep, it will gradually “die”, starting with the motor, auditory, and neural aspects, followed by the visuals — but then something goes wrong in the sequence of the process. Unfortunately, currently available drugs are only able to reduce the volume of the explosion but don’t stop the sound.

Progeria: 5 years old, looks like 80 years old

Generally, the symptoms of aging will begin to appear in middle age. However, for children who suffer from Progeria or Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome 3, their physical appearance even looks like an 80-year-old elderly even though the actual age is not yet two years old. They have protruding eyes, thin noses with beaked tips, thin lips, small chins, and sticking ears. Progeria is caused by a genetic defect.

Even though mentally they are still underage, physically, children with progeria will physically grow older like elderly people. Starting from hair loss and thinning, gray hair, sagging skin and wrinkles here and there and suffering from joint pain to bone loss.

Progeria is a rare, life-threatening condition. Only 48 children worldwide have managed to grow up with this condition. On average, a child born with progeria will not survive past the age of 13. However, there is a family that has five children with this strange disease.

Progeria is deadly because many of these children also develop diseases usually associated with old age, such as heart disease and arthritis. They have acute hardening of the arteries ( arteriosclerosis ) that begins in childhood, leading to a heart attack or stroke at a very young age.

Stone Man’s disease: new bone grows in the body

Medically known as Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP), Stone Man’s disease is one of the rarest, most painful, and most disabling genetic conditions. Stone Man’s disease causes the growth of new bone to replace muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissue that should not be covered with bone.

This strange disease is caused by genetic mutations in the body’s immune system to repair injuries. After an injury, new bone will develop throughout the joint, limiting movement and forming a second skeleton. This condition makes the sufferer like a living mannequin statue that moves rigidly. The slightest trauma and injury, even from an injection, can cause the bone to start growing.

Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for this condition other than taking general pain medication. FOP occurs in one in two million people, but there are only 800 officially recorded cases in the world.

Xeroderma Pigmentosum: vampires in the real world

Humans need sunlight to get vitamin D, but about 1 in 1 million people have xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and are very sensitive to UV light. They must be completely protected from the sun, or they will experience extreme sunburn and severe skin damage.

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a subtype of the disorder known

Lymphadenitis, swollen lymph glands due to infection

April 25, 2010 0 Comments

LymphadenitisLymph nodes are one part of the body that plays an important role in the immune system. However, when problems occur, this condition causes inflammation and triggers lymphadenitis.

What is lymphadenitis?

Lymphadenitis is swelling of the lymph nodes due to inflammation caused by a bacterial or viral infection. This infection usually occurs in one limb and then spreads to the lymph nodes.

In addition, swollen lymph nodes can occur as a result of the tumor.

Broadly speaking, lymphadenitis is divided into two types:

1. Local lymphadenitis

This condition is among the most common. Localized lymphadenitis usually occurs in one or several adjacent lymph nodes.

Take, for example, enlarged glands due to tonsillitis infection so that swelling will be felt in the neck.

2. Generalized lymphadenitis

This condition occurs due to infection that spreads through the bloodstream or the presence of other diseases that affect the whole body.

What are the symptoms of lymphadenitis?

Symptoms of lymphadenitis usually vary, depending on the severity and type. Sometimes, this condition does not show any symptoms.

Swelling in the lymph nodes due to viral or bacterial infection usually has the following characteristics.

  • The size of the lymph nodes is enlarged.
  • It hurts when you touch it.
  • The lump on the neck feels soft.
  • The skin on the bumps is reddish.
  • Pus appears from the lump.

When to go to the doctor?

Mild cases of lymphadenitis will usually subside on their own. However, if you start to feel the following signs, you should immediately see a doctor.

  • Bumps suddenly appear for no reason.
  • Swollen glands are getting bigger.
  • It doesn’t go away for two to four weeks.
  • The lump feels hard and doesn’t slide easily when you press it.
  • High fever, night sweats, and unexplained weight loss.

What are the causes and risk factors for lymphadenitis?

The following are some of the common causes of lymphadenitis.

  • Skin infection: this condition is caused by infection with Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria and causes impetigo, cellulitis, and purulent skin.
  • Sore throat: this infection is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Measles: Measles is caused by a paramyxovirus.
  • Infections of the teeth and gums: damaged and infected teeth and gums usually have anaerobic bacteria and can trigger periodontitis.
  • Mononucleosis: Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This virus can cause lymphadenitis of the neck.
  • AIDS: HIV will flow until it reaches the lymph nodes, and swelling will appear.
  • Tuberculosis (TB): TB disease arises due to infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Syphilis: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum.
  • Toxoplasma: this disease occurs due to infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii through cat feces or undercooked meat.

Children under the age of 12 and having physical contact with animals are at risk of developing lymphadenitis. Several types of animals such as cats, mice, and cows can be hosts for the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

What are the complications caused by lymphadenitis?

Lymphadenitis that does not get medical treatment may cause several complications such as the following.

  • Accumulation of an abscess or wound with pus.
  • Cellulitis (infection of the skin).
  • Fistula.
  • Sepsis (bloodstream infection).
  • Carotid artery rupture.
  • Irritation of the lining of the heart or pericarditis.

How do doctors diagnose lymphadenitis?

The doctor will usually assess the size, tenderness, texture, and temperature of the lump in lymphadenitis.

This is important because the location of the swelling and the characteristics of the lump can help the doctor determine what is the main cause.

Below is an examination procedure to diagnose lymphadenitis.

1. Laboratory test

Laboratory tests are useful for detecting bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. There are several types of test procedures to check for infection.

  • Gram stain or gram method.
  • Network culture.
  • Serological examination (blood test).
  • Skin test or purified protein derivative (PPD).
  • Complete blood count (CBC test).

2. Imaging test

To diagnose lymphadenitis, your doctor may also order imaging tests, such as ultrasound, to accurately estimate the size and type of swelling.

In addition to an ultrasound test, the doctor will run a chest radiograph to determine if there is a problem with the lungs that could be triggering the swelling.

3. Surgical procedures

Doctors also perform a lymph node biopsy procedure, which is the act of removing part of the infected lymph node. This action makes the examination results more accurate.

The procedure for this procedure is to take a sample from the lymph node and examine it under a microscope.

How to treat lymphadenitis at home?

You can also try some of the following at home.

  • Compress with warm water: apply a cloth moistened with warm water to help promote blood circulation and relieve swelling.
  • Adequate rest: adequate rest and sleep help recovery.
  • Consumption of turmeric: Turmeric has the potential to help

Benefits of Zinc for Infertility Problems in Men, Really?

December 24, 2009 0 Comments

Infertility One of the fertility problems or infertility in men generally occurs to low sperm production. About half of the infertility problems married couples face are caused by this. You can get around this by maintaining a nutritious diet, especially food sources rich in zinc. Is it true that the benefits of zinc are for this one man? Check out the following reviews.

What is zinc?

Zinc or zinc is a versatile mineral that is essential for your body. These micronutrients or micronutrients your body needs every day to replenish nutrient intake. In addition, zinc is one of the most important minerals found in the body.

This mineral content has several benefits in helping immune function, enzyme conversion, cell metabolism, and breaking down proteins. Based on the nutritional adequacy rate (RDA), the human body requires an intake of 11 milligrams for adult men and 8 milligrams for adult women.

Is it true that the benefits of zinc are for male fertility?

In addition to the benefits to support the growth and function of the immune system. Zinc has benefits in aspects of the performance of the male reproductive system. A study in the Journal of Reproduction and Infertility explains the benefits of zinc for men by protecting sperm from bacteria. This is thanks to the content of this nutrient as an antibacterial agent in the male reproductive system.

Zinc contains antioxidants that protect sperm from free radicals that can damage cells, and also affect sperm count and testosterone levels. The researchers concluded that men with high levels of zinc, whether smoking or not. Could have better healthy sperm quality than men with lower levels of zinc in the body.

Although zinc is also good for female fertility. The role of this nutrient is more reliable to support male fertility. The addition of zinc intake through certain foods or supplements in infertile men helps increase sperm levels. And improve sperm shape, function, and quality, thereby reducing the chances of infertility in men.

If zinc levels in the male reproductive tract are too low, this condition can lead to several problems such as the following.

  • Sperm are not mature. Zinc is very much needed by the body during the formation of sperm cells ( spermatogenesis ), especially the outer membrane and tail of the sperm. Without zinc, sperm cannot reach the sperm maturity level that will give them the mobility and strength to make the long journey through the vagina, cervix, the uterus for fertilization.
  • Chromosomal changes. Low levels of zinc can also be the cause of the appearance of chromosomal defects in sperm cells that can cause miscarriage, even if fertilization is in progress.

Choice of food intake rich in zinc

In addition to taking supplements, make sure you eat enough zinc-rich foods each week. Experts recommend eating as many sources of zinc in raw form as possible. This is because the cooking process may reduce the zinc content by at least 50 percent.

To meet your body’s daily needs, there are several choices of food sources that are high in zinc, such as the following.

  • Meat. Red meat products, such as beef and mutton, are good sources of zinc intake. This food source is also rich in protein, fat, vitamin B complex, and iron which are good for the body. However, avoid processed meat products, such as sausages, meatballs, and others.
  • Oyster. Besides being high in zinc, oysters also contain vitamins and minerals, including selenium and vitamin B12. Make sure you cook the oysters until they are fully cooked to avoid the risk of food poisoning.
  • Nuts. As a source of vegetable protein, some types of nuts, such as peanuts, cashews, and almonds are also high in zinc. There is also an intake of other minerals, such as magnesium, phosphorus, copper, and manganese.
  • Dairy products. Milk and cheese are two products that contain bioavailable zinc, which means that some of the nutrients are readily available and easy for the body to absorb. Dairy products are also rich in protein, vitamin D, and calcium which are good for bone health.
  • Egg. This easy-to-get protein source also contains zinc to meet daily nutritional needs. Eggs are also a good source of other nutrients, such as protein, fat, B-complex vitamins, and selenium.
  • Dark chocolate. This type of food is rich in zinc and other minerals, such as iron and magnesium. Dark chocolate that has been through the processing process may be high in sugar content, so you need to pay attention when consuming it.
  • Vegetables. Some types of vegetables, such as potatoes, green beans, and kale also contain zinc, although not as much as food sources of animal protein. Even so, the consumption of vegetables is good for the prevention of chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer.

Meeting the intake of these

Recognize Injuries and Disorders of the Finger

September 25, 2009 0 Comments

Injuries Almost every daily activity that you do involves both hands and fingers. This means you are exposing your fingers to various dangers and risks. Therefore, it is very natural that the fingers are prone to injury. So, what are the types of finger injuries that you might experience, and how to deal with them? Come on, see the full explanation below!

What are the types of finger injuries?

Actually, not only the fingers are susceptible to injury, but also the toes. Well, your fingers are lined with a lot of nerve endings when compared to the rest of the body.

Injuries can easily damage these nerves. Many types of finger injuries are quite common, such as the following:


Although classified as very common and very trivial, this is one injury that you still need to pay attention to. Starting from scratches, and peeling skin, to swollen fingers are finger injury problems that you should also pay attention to.


Your fingers and toes can also be sprained. Usually, this injury occurs due to being hit by a hard object, for example being hit by a ball that shoots at high speed.

The incident then caused the joint surface to be impacted thereby sustaining this injury. Usually, this condition can also be referred to as arthritis due to trauma.

Injured fingertips

You may not be aware, but this condition can also occur on your fingertips due to car doors or glass doors. Usually, accidentally, your fingertips are scraped off until they are cut and bleed.

Not only the tips of your fingers but the tips of your nails can also be damaged because of this. If this condition also causes finger bones to break, you may have a bone infection.

Subungual hematoma (blood clot under the nail)

This condition often occurs due to pinched fingers, for example when your fingers are caught in a door. However, not only, this injury can also occur if there is a heavy object that accidentally rests on a finger or toe.

Initially, this condition will indeed cause pain and aches. However, if you get proper treatment from a doctor, the pain may be reduced. In addition, proper handling can reduce the risk of the nail falling off.

Broken bones

Finger or toe injuries that may occur are fractures or bone dislocations. This is one of the conditions that you also need to be aware of.

Tendon injuries

Make no mistake, it turns out that you can also experience tendon injuries in your fingers. Usually, this condition occurs due to impact on the finger. During this injury, the affected tendon is the one that attaches to the bone and tears.

Nerve injury

You can also experience nerve injury to your fingers and toes. This condition can cause decreased tactile sensitivity in your fingers. The reason is that damaged nerves can cause numbness in the fingers.

What are some common finger disorders?

In addition to injuries, your fingers can also experience various disorders that affect the function of tendons and joints. Here are some disorders that attack the fingers and have the potential to cause injury if not treated immediately:

Trigger finger

When experiencing a trigger finger, the fingers will lock in a bent position so they cannot be in a straight position. Yes, this condition can cause limited movement of your finger because it cannot change position.

This may be due to swelling of the tendon. These conditions then prevent or limit you from controlling your fingers.

De Quervain’s syndrome

Meanwhile, De Quervain’s syndrome is another disorder that occurs in the tendons of your thumb. This can be painful, especially when your wrist is moved or when you try to reach for an object.

Not only that, but experts also suspect that this syndrome occurs due to swelling of the tendons, but there is no definite cause for this condition. However, repetitive motion can make the pain worse.


This musculoskeletal disorder can also cause swelling of the fingers along with pain, stiffness, and numbness. Swelling is a very common condition of the fingers.

Sometimes, the temperature can also be a factor that triggers swelling. At high temperatures, your blood vessels can dilate and release more fluid into the soft tissues, causing swelling.

However, in addition to the swelling, according to Medline Plus, osteoarthritis can also cause deformities in your fingers.

Health Problems Due to High Cholesterol, What Are?

July 6, 2009 0 Comments

HealthCholesterol is one of the fatty substances needed by the body. However, if the amount is too much in the blood, you can experience health problems or high cholesterol. This condition can lead to various other diseases that are even more severe if not treated immediately. Then, what diseases may you experience due to high cholesterol? Check out the various diseases that can be a complication of cholesterol below.

Various diseases may occur due to high cholesterol

The amount of cholesterol that is too high in the blood is not good for health. Here are other health problems that may arise from too high cholesterol, for example:

Chest pain (angina)

One of the conditions that you may experience due to high cholesterol is a pain in the chest or commonly called angina. Pain in the chest generally occurs because the heart muscle does not get the oxygen-rich blood it needs.

This may occur due to cholesterol levels that are too high in the blood to accumulate in the arteries to form plaque. These plaques block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. That’s why blood can’t reach the heart and causes chest pain.

Often, when you feel pain in your chest due to plaque buildup in your arteries, you may also experience various symptoms of another coronary heart disease.

Coronary heart disease

According to the National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, one of the complications that may occur due to high cholesterol is coronary heart disease. One of the symptoms of this disease is chest pain, another condition that is also a complication of cholesterol.

This condition occurs due to the buildup of plaque formed from excess cholesterol levels in the blood. These plaques build up in the coronary arteries, thereby blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart.

When the heart muscle does not get the blood supply it needs, the heart cannot function normally. Unfortunately, often this condition does not cause any symptoms until you feel symptoms that are quite severe such as chest pain, heart attack, or sudden cardiac arrest.

Usually, when you experience this condition, your doctor will advise you to change your lifestyle to a healthier one. For example, doing exercise is good for the heart, practicing a healthy diet for the heart, and various ways to prevent various other heart diseases.

Carotid artery disease

Each individual has two carotid arteries located at the back of the neck. These two arteries are the way of blood to the brain. Unfortunately, cholesterol levels that are too high can be the cause of carotid artery disease.

Yes, this condition is one of several diseases that can be a complication of cholesterol. The reason, buildup of plaque in the carotid arteries can occur due to cholesterol that is too high in the blood.

Similar to plaque buildup in the coronary arteries, buildup in the carotid arteries can also block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the brain, face, scalp, and neck. Of course, this condition is quite serious because it can be a cause of stroke.

A stroke can occur if blood flow to the brain is blocked. If this condition lasts for more than a few minutes, the cells in the brain will slowly die. This condition causes several parts of the body to be controlled by cells in the brain.

If a stroke has occurred, permanent brain damage may occur, impairing the ability to see and speak. In severe cases, stroke patients may be immobilized and die.

Peripheral artery disease ( peripheral artery disease )

Peripheral artery disease can also result from high cholesterol. As with other arterial diseases, peripheral arteries may occur due to plaque buildup in the peripheral arteries. This causes a blockage that blocks blood flow to the head, organs, and other body parts.

This blockage occurs because the arteries are narrowed. After all, there is a buildup of plaque in the arteries. This of course limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to organs and other body parts.

Generally, peripheral artery disease affects the arteries in the legs. However, this condition may cause problems with blood flow to the arms, kidneys, and stomach.

Of course, you should not underestimate the conditions that occur due to high cholesterol on this one. The reason is, peripheral artery disease often goes unnoticed. It is not uncommon for people to misinterpret peripheral artery symptoms for other conditions.

Not to mention, many medical experts also missed and failed to diagnose this condition. Patients who experience conditions that occur due to high cholesterol have a higher risk of coronary heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.

If peripheral artery disease is left untreated and not treated promptly with medication, the patient may have to undergo amputation.

Heart attack

One of the risk factors that can cause a heart

Respiratory Health Problems? Type, Treatment, and Prevention

June 19, 2009 0 Comments

Health Humans need oxygen to stay alive. The respiratory system works every day to supply oxygen intake to maintain normal body functions. When the respiratory system is not healthy or disturbed, various symptoms will arise that can interfere with the health of human life.

What is respiratory distress?

Respiratory disorders refer to various types of diseases or disorders that impede the functioning of the lungs. This disease can affect the ability to breathe.

The causes can come from anywhere, including infection, exposure to harmful substances such as cigarette smoke, or abnormalities in the respiratory system itself.

Types of respiratory disorders
The respiratory disease consists of many types, from mild to serious. The following are the types of respiratory disorders that are commonly recognized.


Flu is a disease caused by infection with the influenza virus. This disease can attack your respiratory system, including your nose, throat, and lungs.

For most people, the flu is considered a mild illness. Symptoms may go away on their own in a few days. However, sometimes the flu can also cause serious conditions, especially in people with weakened immune systems.

Flu transmission is very easy. Influenza viruses spread through the air and can infect when you breathe in droplets from a sick person who coughs or sneezes.


Asthma is one of the most common respiratory disorders. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2019, accounting for around 262 million people worldwide have asthma.

People with asthma often experience symptoms in the form of shortness of breath or making loud breathing sounds (wheezing). There are also asthma attacks called exacerbations or flare-ups. This is a condition when asthma attacks are not controlled.

Asthma is chronic, which means the disease will not go away. No drug can cure asthma. Therefore, patients need ongoing medical treatment so that asthma symptoms can be controlled.

Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium M. tuberculosis. Similar to the flu, a person can catch TB by breathing air containing droplets from the coughs or sneezes of an infected person.

However, TB transmission is not that easy. It takes long and close contact with a patient until you become infected too. Sometimes, bacteria can also infect without causing symptoms. This condition is called latent TB.

Despite this fact, tuberculosis can be a dangerous respiratory disorder. According to the Indonesian Ministry of Health, this disease is even estimated to have caused 93,000 deaths per year in Indonesia.


This respiratory disorder is an infection that makes the air pockets in the lungs fill with pus or fluid. Due to this condition, patients experience various symptoms such as coughing up phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.

Pneumonia can be life-threatening, especially in infants and young children, the elderly over 65 years, and people with weakened immune systems.

Based on the cause, there are several types of pneumonia, namely bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, and fungal pneumonia.


COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that obstructs airflow from the lungs. The most common types of diseases are emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

The appearance of COPD symptoms occurs progressively. At the onset of the disease, the patient may not feel any symptoms. The symptoms are only disturbing if the disease has been in your body for a long time.

Some of the symptoms that will appear include chronic cough, cough with phlegm, shortness of breath, wheezing, and fatigue.


Pharyngitis occurs due to inflammation of the pharynx, the upper part of the throat. People know this condition as a sore throat.

This respiratory disorder is not a disease, but rather a symptom that indicates other conditions such as the flu. Its appearance can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

When you have pharyngitis, you will experience a sore throat, dry and itchy throat, and pain when swallowing or speaking.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In Indonesia alone, lung cancer ranks third as the most common cancer.

The risk of lung cancer is higher in people who smoke. However, lung cancer can also occur in people who have never smoked.

Symptoms of cancer are not immediately felt at the beginning of its appearance. Most cases of this disease are found in patients when they have entered an advanced stage.

Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders

Before dealing with your health problem, the doctor needs to do an examination first to diagnose the disease. The reason is, any respiratory disorders must be treated according to the underlying disease.

First, the doctor will perform a physical examination to find out the signs and symptoms you are experiencing. The doctor will usually ask about your condition and your previous medical history.

Some respiratory disorders can be characterized by the …